So I am back again after some gap. This post will describe the solutions to the two puzzle that I posed as part of my prequel post "Necklace Theorem". For the sake of clarity I am copying the puzzles again over here.
1) Given a point set of size n in 2D, prove that there would exist a pair of orthogonal lines which would divide the point set in such a way that in each quadrant number of points are at most n/4.
As shown in the figure on the left, let us consider a baseline B. The circle represent the point set we are interested in. Refer to the prequel of this post and convince yourself that it is possible to have a line in any given direction which divides the point set into two equal half. Hence, it is also possible to have two orthogonal lines both of which will divide the point set into two equal half. ( When I say, two equal half, I mean that division in two portion satisfying the constraint "less or equals n/2" ). As both p and q divides the point set into two equal half, the region which is captured on top-left and bottom-right will be equal ( call it x, or to be more precise "less or equal x" ). Similarly, tom-right and bottom-left would be equal ( call it y). Let us have a function f(x,y) = (x-y) = v. By rotating p and q , 90 degrees we will have function value exactly negative, as x and y would swap their places. From intermediate value theorem we can argue that there will be a configuration where x = y = n/4.
2) Given a point set of size n in 2D, prove that there would exist 3 concurrent lines which would divide the point set in such a way that in each segment the number of points are at most n/6.
With respect to the baseline B, we can have two lines p and q, each dividing the point set into equal half and region trapped as shown in figure would be equal to n/6 on each side. ( n/6 is written outside the circle to make it readable ). Now, as shown in the prequel post, we can have a line r which will divide the two point sets ( each of size n/3 ) into two equal half. This line r need not be concurrent with p and q. Let the triangle trapped between these three lines is equal to A. As we rotate this configuration 180 degree the area will become -A. Again, from intermediate value theorem we can state that area will be 0 at some configuration making r concurrent to p and q. Thus, each segment will have size n/6.